What wonders help to eliminate back pain permanently?

Contemplate round your spine and envision a disc trodden linking two backbones. I used to bake brownies for my hubby in a toaster oven. What is triggering the vertebrae to congestion the disc? The muscles involved to the spinal column are hypertonic causing compactness and smooth drag the bones and carriage of placement. Ultimately, it is this system of facade that is confidential roots the physiques to utility abusively. This is anywhere inversion therapy in practicality stances out as a boosted class form of adhesion therapy. By overturning, you are in certainty stretching and opening the connective muscle bumpily apiece cell in your physique! Not just your bristle and your muscles but the muscle objective round your organs and in caught among your joints. You valor still let go limitations in the Dural tube that background your backbone and your reason. However, the benefits of inversion tablemust be implemented properly or it will not be powerful.

The apposite technique to transmit available inversion treatment is to simply overturn to a method of jaggedly 15 to 45 degrees and to endure in that position for around 2 to 5 minutes. We will variety clear why as this is not utter for one and all. Inside your muscle is a periodical that promotions frustrate it from grumble if stretched moreover copious. If overdid for 3 seconds, it will constrict up to lookout herself. Also, when you implement any classification of elasticity for a concise time, such as a yoga fabrication, you will get approximately supplement in a sequences of program or resistance. But, you have only overextended out the inflatable component of the fascia. The collagen segment takes at minimum two minutes to originate to rewarm and encompass and in fact ought to be protracted for five minutes or slower to release entirely.

It is distinguished to freshman with a bright perspective of transposal but for a lengthier period of time, at slightest of two proceedings to an uppermost of what is endangered for your figure. A review in The Medical bulletin of Australia quantified that a purchase table with the unflagging prostrate. You can prepare breakfast by using  hamilton beach toaster oven with in minutes. The thoracic fastening supports the physique as the table is perverse a foot down, so the patient’s physique is in certainty doing the foothold. They adventure only a 12-degree encourages, and future than 85 minutes they perceive that yet an innovative viewpoint of 70 degrees bequeath no significant more broadening, but 5 minutes at 12 degrees was moderately remarkable.

The Pan Grave Culture

The carriers of this specific Nubian culture are thought to have been nomads from the Eastern Desert and are identified with the Medjay (later the Bedja) of the Egyptian texts – a designation of the desert Nubians in contrast to the Nehesy-Nubians of the Nile valley. This may be the correct assessment for a part of this population. The Medja land is known, however, since the late Old Kingdom and seems to have been situated near the Nile. Since king Nebhepetre Mentuhotep (c. 2043-1992 BC) of the 11th Dynasty had married, besides other Nubian consorts, a dark skinned princess from Medja with the name Ashait, one may assume that this land was an established kingdom at that time, probably sited near the Kerma kingdom and was absorbed by the latter during the Middle Kingdom. This may have triggered the move of the Pan Grave people to Lower Nubia and Egypt. According to both the Semna Despatches, dating from the late twelfth Dynasty (c. 1850-1800 BC), and the name of the 10th Nubian MK fortress “Khesef-Medjayu” -“The one which repells the Medjay”- the Egyptian military authorities tried to stop this immigration from the desert, but in vain. Pan Grave cemeteries can be found in Lower Nubia and at many sites in Egypt dating principally from the time of the late Middle Kingdom and early Second Intermediate Period (c. 1800-1600 BC). Normally the cemeteries are small and situated on the fringe of the desert, often in the vicinity of cemeteries belonging to the local population. The most important sites are Deir Rifeh, Mostagedda with the largest cemetery, Qau, Balabish, Hu, Tôd, Daraw, and in Nubia at Shellal, Dakka, Wadi Allâqi, Sayâla, Aniba, Toshka, and at several places between Faras and Gammai. Sherds of this culture have been found at many other sites in Egypt extending as far north as Memphis. The most distinct cluster is, however, in Middle and Upper Egypt and in Lower Nubia.

The name Pan Grave Culture comes from the typical circular pit graves, which sometimes have a small stone circle as their superstructure. The dead are buried in a crouched position, on their right side, oriented either according to the absolute co-ordinates north-south with the head in the north, looking west, or oriented east-west, with the head in the east, looking south. The bodies rest on mats and are wrapped in leather or fur. They seem to have also imported Egyptian linen according to the representation of a Medjay man painted on a bukranium. This painting also shows the coiffure bulging backwards, in a similar manner to that worn in modern times by the Watussi men.

Pan-Grave pottery consists of open, flat, round-bottomed bowls with polished surfaces, and ledged rims. They are either plain polished with a black polished interior, which extends over the rim in the form of a black top. Other types of such bowls show an incised pattern, produced by a rough comb in criss-cross fashion. Beadwork of ostrich egg shell and nerita snails can be found with burials of both genders and are typical for this culture. The latter show connections via the eastern desert to the Red Sea. The Pan Grave people also had shell strip bracelets which seem to occur only in this culture. Very specific is the deposition of the bukrania of gazelles or goats, often painted with red dots, within the superstructure of the tombs. We also meet a similar custom with bull bukrania among the Kerma Culture.

No domestic architectural features are known from the Pan Grave Culture. Camps only display open-air features. The physical population type is very specific, showing long isolation and archaic African features such as long jaws with large teeth, the third molars being the biggest. They were taller than the Egyptians and had strong muscular features. This made them very suitable for the warrior profession. Often weapons of Egyptian typology such as daggers and battle axes, as well as bowstrings and arrow tips are found in their graves. This documents the employment of those people as warriors of the 13th and early 17th Dynasties. Records of the 13th Dynasty show different Medjay delegations being received at court.

Towards the end of the Second Intermediate Period the Medjay seem to have completely adopted the Kerma Culture which shows that new waves of immigrants had arrived. We may conclude this since according to Egyptian records the Medjay were engaged by the Theban late 17th and early 18th Dynasties as soldiers against the Hyksos. Nubian graves and settlement remains in Egypt from this period at Deir el-Ballas, Avaris and elsewhere reveal, however, no Pan Grave features but only signs of the Kerma Culture.

During the New Kingdom the Medjay were formed into a special force in charge of the deserts and the necropoleis. They served under Egyptian officers and, by means of documents can be followed up to the time of the 20th Dynasty, although nothing of their original culture has survived so late within the archaeological record. Nevertheless the Medjay were still remembered in Ptolemaic times as being associated with the eastern desert and bringing the traditional product of this region, gold.

Manfred Bietak,
Austrian Archaeological Institute, Cairo

Bibliography for C-Group and Pan Grave Culture:

W.Y. ADAMS, Nubia, Corridor to Africa, Princeton 1977;
M. BIETAK, Ausgrabungen in Sayala-Nubien 1961-1965, Denkmälerler der C-Gruppe und der Pan-Gräber-Kultur Vienna (Austrian Academy) 1966;
IDEM, Studien zur Chronologie der nubischen C-Gruppe, Vienna (Austrian Academy) 1968;
IDEM, The C-Group and the Pan-Grave Culture in Nubia”, in: Nubian Culture: Past and Present, Kunigl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens Konferenser 17. Stockholm (Swedish Academy of Letters) 1987, 113-128;
C. BONNET, Kerma, Royaume de Nubie, Geneva 1990;
J. BOURRIAU, “Relations between Egypt and Kerma during the and the New Kingdoms”, in: Egypt and Africa, Nubia from Prehistory to Islam, ed. by W.V. Davies. London (British Museum) 1991;
B. TRIGGER, History and Settlement in Lower Nubia, New Haven 1965.

The X Group or Ballana Culture

…”Archaeologically, the post-Meroitic dark age in Lower Nubia is filled by the cultural remains which Reisner designated sixty years ago as the “X Group”. …
…”As always, Reisner interpreted the unfamiliar “X Group” grave type as evidence of the coming of a new people… The cultural theories of Reisner found instant confirmation in the anatomical evidence of the X-Group skeletons as adduced by Elliot Smith: “The X Group people were strongly Negroid aliens who had suddenly made their way north into Nubia, bringing with them a mode of burial and type of pottery which Dr Reisner has declared to be distinctly non-Egyptian…”
“It seemed, in sum, that a new group of southern barbarians had taken possession of the whole of Lower Nubia, displacing Romans and Meroitic alike”…
…”Modern anthropological research has not confirmed the theory of “X Group” racial distinctness vis-à-vis the preceding Meroitic population in Lower Nubia”….
…”Given the present state of our knowledge, the continued use of the non-committal and misleading ‘X-Group’ designation seems unjustified. The name ‘Ballana Culture’, proposed several years ago by Trigger, is manifestly preferable… It identifies a particular stage of Nubian cultural development with its principal monumental expression, and provides a name which instantly enables us to differentiate between the culture of Lower Nubia and the related but in some ways distinct post-Meroitic culture of the steppelands, which is designated by Trigger as the Tanqasi Culture…
“If the archaeological remains of the Meroitic and Ballana phases point unmistakably to cultural and social continuity, there nevertheless remain important differences between them which must be explained. In the cultural sphere we have to account for the disappearance of many of the higher art which had long been characteristic of Kushite civilization, and at the same time for the revival of burial rites which seem to hark all the way back to pre-pharaonic Kerma. In the political sphere we have to recognize the appearance of a new, independent monarchy in Lower Nubia which nevertheless represents the last, barbarized manifestation of the pharaonic tradition. To further complicate the picture we have a fairly considerable number of late classical texts which make no mention of Meroe or Meroites, but allude repeatedly to two seemingly new peoples, the Blemmyes and Nobatae. Finally, we have possible evidence of linguistic discontinuity between the Meroitic and Post-Meroitic periods which cannot be ignored….”

“Remains of the Ballana Culture have been found from Shellal in the North to Sesebi, in the Abri-Delgo Reach, in the South… Ballana sites-both villages and cemeteries- are notably smaller and more dispersed than are those of the Meroitic period….”

 X-Group grave

“The typical Ballana tumulus was from 12 to 40 feet in diameter, and might rise to a maximum height of 15 feet… The tumuli of kings and nobles could reach far larger proportions. In the ordinary tombs there was no adjoining offering chamber or surface decoration of the earth mound. As in the Meroitic period, many graves seem to have lacked any kind of superstructure; in some places there are whole cemeteries without any tumuli. In their subterranean arrangements, the Ballana graves show the same variety of chamber types as do Meroitic graves. Although cave graves are rare, the basic two-fold division between vaulted chamber-tombs and niche graves, and the further division of the latter into end-niche and side-niche types, persists throughout the Ballana period. However, the relative proportions of the two main types are reversed: simple niche graves are much more common than are vaulted tombs in the Post-Meroitic period. A further innovation may be seen in the re-introduction of the contracted burial posture, and of the southward orientation of the body in place of the traditional westward orientation of Meroitic times. The great majority of contracted burials are found in niche-graves; they may represent nothing more than a natural adaptation to this rather constricted type of grave chamber. The bodies in chamber-tombs are most often extended on the back, as in Meroitic times. The practise of wrapping the dead in a shroud remained usual throughout the Ballana period. The funerary offerings in Ballana graves are of the same general types as are found in Meroitic graves, but are considerably reduced in number and variety. Quantities of cheap, locally made pottery are the most common grave furnishings. Other objects, except beads, are rare, and imported goods exceptionally so. Weapons of one kind and another are found in a good many cases; they include iron spear and arrow heads, leather quivers of a striking and elaborate design, leather bowguards, and archers’ stone rings…”
“The absence of monumental architecture is one of the most distinctive and surprising features of the Ballana period. Not only was there no further building in stone, but the older temples and/or palaces which had been built at Gebel Adda and at Meinarti in late Meroitic times were deliberately destroyed. This seems to have been a matter of policy rather than an accident of war…”

“What little we know of everyday life in Ballana times comes chiefly from the remains of a few towns and villages which were founded in Meroitic times but continued to be occupied later… At none of these places was there any significant break in the continuity of social and cultural development between Meroitic and post-Meroitic times…”
“…One of the few Nubian manufactures which seems to have flourished widely in the Ballana period was the pottery-making. It shows, however, an almost complete break with the traditions of Meroitic times, and the final disappearance of any vestige of ancient Egyptian influence. The lack of correspondence between Meroitic and X Group pottery was one of the factors long regarded as evidence for an “X Group” invasion…” “…Ballana pottery is so closely similar to that of Byzantine Egypt, and so different from its Meroitic predecessor….” “Pottery vessels seem to have been the only luxury goods which were enjoyed in any quantity by the Ballana people. They are found in enormous numbers not only in the graves, but even abandoned on the floors of houses…”
“Iron was certainly another industry of the Ballana period, although it is by no means abundant either in houses or in graves”…..” Another industry of Ballana times which is attested by a few chance finds is that of basket-making…”
“Most of the other manufactured goods which are sometimes found in Ballana graves are the same as, or closely similar to, those of the Meroitic period, and many of them appear to have been imported…”
” Throughout most of Nubia, archaeological remains of the Ballana culture give the impression of a decentralized agrarian society, poorer but more self-sufficient than the society of Meroitic times. Although differences of wealth are perceptible from family to family and from village to village, there is no conspicuously differentiated middle class….”


Nubia Submerged

In 2000, the Nubia Museum was enriched with a new gallery, located in the hall for the temporary exhibitions, as well as additions to the existing collection. The new gallery is currently hosting an exhibition of 168 40cmx40cm photos, enlarged from the originals, of the historical sites now under Lake Nasser, which is also where most of the objects in the museum come from. The exhibition is called ‘Nubia Submerged’.

Promoted by the Italian Embassy in Cairo’s Scientific Attaché Office, directed by Engineer Giuseppe Marino and whose curator is the Nubiologist Maria Costanza De Simone, the gallery was officially opened to the public in April 2001 in the presence of Egyptian Minister of Culture H.E. Farouk Hosni and Italian Ambassador in Cairo H.E. Mario Sica.

The photos, generously offered by people and institutions involved in the several salvage operations, are displayed in the form of an open-air museum with photos of tombs, settlements, fortresses, temples, churches and mosques, as well as recent panoramic shots that reveal what the bed of Lake Nasser looks like today. They witness the cultural development of the area from prehistoric to modern times.

Comments written by people who struggled at the time to save or at least document this wonderful heritage accompany visitors to the museum in their journey through time and space.



This exhibition is dedicated to Heqaib, an important official appointed Governor of Elephantine and Caravan Leader during the reign of the Pharaoh Pepi II, c.2246-2152 B.C. The name of Heqaib is very important in the history of the area of Aswan during the Pharaonic period. His tomb is located on the hill of Qubbet el Hawa on the west bank of Aswan, and his temple (he was deified) on the island of Elephantine.
The exhibition displays objects found during excavations, carried out by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities, in the area of the temple more than 50 years ago. Here were found more than one hundred objects , such as stelae, altars, offering tables and statues, many of them dedicated to Heqaib by his successors, and others by local priest and official who lived in the Cataract Region during XIth-XIIIth dynasties.

Educational and Cultural Facilities

1- School visits:

The educational department provides a series of activities for school children.

  • Pottery workshops: children create potteries with the help of the educational staff.
  • Basketry workshops: once a week, a facilitator comes to animate a children’s workshop on traditional basketry.
  • Costume making: children can design and create historical costumes relating to the different periods represented in the museum collections.
  • Theatre performances: children can create small plays and act in the open air theatre specially reserved for the education department, or use the museum’s lecture hall for bigger performances. They usually use the costumes that they created during the costume making activities.
  • Journal writing: this workshop enables children to create a journal relating their visit to the museum, or on a particular theme they are studying.
  • Exhibition: small exhibitions of the children’s achievements are organised annually in the education department.

Reception area (lunch room, toilets, cloak room, etc.)

Outdoor infrastructure:
Small amphitheatre for 60 children with sun and wind protection.
Access possibility to limited exterior areas, especially from the workshop, to carry out outdoor activities in specifically designed areas, i.e. work area and gardens.

Schools should book at least a week in advance.

Contact person:
Mrs. Thanaa Hassan Mousa, Head of Education Department
Tel. (+2097) 31911
Fax. (+2097) 317998
E-Mail: thanaa25@yahoo.com

2- Lecture Hall:

A lecture hall seating 250 persons may be used to complement the exhibition and educational program with the presentation of lectures, films, slides, etc. It may be let on demand for ceremonies, performances, etc.

Lobby and information desk
Amphitheater for 250 persons
Stage, speakers and podium
Projection booth
Translation cabinets for 3 languages

Contact person:
Mrs. Thanaa Hassan Mousa, Head of Education Department
Tel. (+2097) 31911
Fax. (+2097) 317998
E-Mail: thanaa25@yahoo.com

Music and dance: Singer / aut./comp.

Author:  Akendengue (Pierre-Claver)
Origin:  Gabon

Biography:  Pierre-Claver Akendengue was born in Awuta, in the Nengué Sika island of the Fernan-Vaz lagoon, in Gabon, on April 25, 1943. His childhood takes place in a peasant environment, cradled by the ebb and flow. waves on the shores of the island. He composed his first songs at the age of 14. After high school in Gabon he went to France and in 1967, he entered the Petit Conservatoire de Mireille in Paris for 3 years. He recorded his first 45 T, Ghalo Ghalo, in 1972. In addition to studying music, he studied psychology, and after obtaining his doctorate in 1987, he returned to Gabon.

It is a whole picture of the contemporary social history of Africa found in his repertoire. He notes the imperfections of society, denounces the reign of money that stifles human relationships, the misery of the poorest, the mismanagement of some haves, the moral, physical and economic exploitation endured by Africans, neocolonialism, l ‘oppression. He also sings the beauty of nature, freedom, friendship and his love for Africa. Like the ancients, Akendengue uses metaphors and stories to convey his message. He plays his songs most often in myenes (his mother tongue) but also in French.

Akendengue is also a guitarist, composer, author and arranger of all his songs. He also composed music for films, one of which won the Best Film Music Award (Les Coopérants) at Fespaco in 1985.


  • Ghalo Ghalo, 45T, 1972, Sonafric, SAF 1532A
  • Nkere, 45 T, 1974, Saravah, SH 45055
  • Nandipo, 33 T, 1974, Saravah, SH 10045
  • Tonda, 45 T, 1975, Saravah, SH 4057
  • Afrika Obota, 33 T, 1976, Saravah, SH 10063
  • Ndandaye, 45 T, 1976, Ntye, NT 10001
  • Ewawa, 45T, 1977, Ntye, NT 10002
  • Olando, 45 T, 1978, Ntye, NT 10003
  • Eseringuila, 33 T, 1978, Sonepran, NT 30001
  • Afrika Salalo, 45 T, 1978, Sonepran, NT 10004
  • Elowe, 45 T, 1978, Ntye, NT 10008
  • Owende, 33 T, 1979, Song of the World, LDX 74677
  • Mengo, 33 T, 1980, Ntye, NT 13002
  • Tchaka, 45 T, 1980, Ntye, NT 10009
  • Isamu Ya Pili, 45 T, 1981, Ntye, NT 10010
  • Awana W’Afrika, 33T, 1982, Ntye, NT13003
  • Mando, 33 T, 1983, CBS, 25355
  • Wake of Africa, 33 T, 1984, Ntye, NT / AKN 13004
  • Piroguier, 33 T, 1986, Ntye, NT 13005
  • Ka’Bo, 45 T, 1986, CBS, A 127037
  • Sarraounia, 45 T, 1986, Sepam, A 295 RC 270
  • Hope in Soweto, 33 T, 1988, Encore, ENC 141
  • Quest for Freedom, 1989, CCF
  • Silence, 33 T, 1990, Melody, 66882-1
  • Lambarena, CD, 1994, Africa Space, SK 64542
  • Maladalité, CD, 1995, Melody, 66976-2
  • Carrefour Rio, CD, 1996, MEPA 8961
  • Oba Kadences, CD, 2000, Romepa Gabon, ROMEPA GABON 83003

Biography:  Youssou N’Dour was born in Dakar in 1959 and began to sing as a child in the district of the Medina in Dakar, Senegal. As a teenager he sang for the Star Band, the most famous Senegalese band of the time. In 1979, he created his own group, Etoile de Dakar, which became in 1981, The Super Star. This group created a modern African style, which influenced artists as diverse as Peter Gabriel and Paul Simon. It was Peter Gabriel who introduced Youssou N’Dour to American and British artists in his album So (1986) and who took The Super Star on tour with him. In 1988, Youssou N’Dour was part of Amnesty International’s “Human Rights Now!” alongside Peter Gabriel, Bruce Springsteen, Sting and Tracy Chapman.

In 1991, Youssou N’Dour signed a contract with Spike Lee’s 40 Acres and A Mule Musicworks label, distributed by Columbia. The result of this collaboration was the album Eyes Open in 1992 with Le Super Etoile: the album won a Grammy Award. After the release of Eyes Open, Youssou N’Dour was named ambassador of UNICEF during the Year of the Child.
In July 1993, he composed an opera that was performed at the Paris Opera.


  • 2000 Joko, Sony Music CD 489718 2
  • 1997 Gainde – Voices from the heart of Africa, World Network
  • 1994 The Guide, Columbia CD 476508 2
  • 1992 Eyes open, Columbia CD 471186 2
  • 1990 Set, Virgin CD CDV 2634
  • 1989 The Lion, Virgin CD CDV 2584
  • 1984 Djamil (Inédits 84-85), Celluloid CD 66811-2
  • Immigrants / bitim rew, Celluloid CD 66709-2
  • Lii!
  • Rewmi
  • The big ball in Bercy
Official website: http://www.metissacana.sn/youssou/

Music and dance: Singer / aut.

Author:  Makeba (Miriam)
Origin:  South Africa

Biography:  Miriam Makeba was born on March 4, 1932 in Johannesburg. In 1947, after the Bantu Education Act, which banned all non-white people from school after 16 years, she joined the group Cuban Brothers in Johannesburg, then the Manhattan Brothers, then the African Jazz and Variety in 1959 where she met the trumpet player Hugh Masekela, whom she will marry five years later.
The same year she went to the USA where she sang at Madison Square Garden in front of President Kennedy. When she wants to return home in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre, she is repressed. His exile will last thirty years.
She is nicknamed Mama Africa after her vibrant speech about her country at the United Nations. When she remarried in 1968 with Carmichael, leader of the Black Panthers, pursued by the FBI, she took refuge in Guinea. She returned to her home country in the late 1980s.


  • Call to Africa, Sonodisc CD SLP 22
  • Promised
  • Eyes on tomorow, Polydor CD 849313-2
  • Homeland, Putumayo CD PUTU164-2
  • I Shall Sing, Esperance Records
  • Kilimanjaro, Sonodisc CD 5563
  • In public in Paris and Conakry, Sonodisc CDS 8818
  • Live at the Palace of Conakry, Sonodisc CD CD 8470
  • PataPata
  • Sangoma, WEA CD LC 0392
  • Welela, Philips CD 838208-2
  • The click song
Author:  Wemba (Papa)
Origin:  DRC

Biography:  Papa Wemba was born in Kasaï, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire) in 1949.
His mother was a professional mourner in the funeral evenings or funeral evenings. By regularly training her son with her, she introduced him to music and singing.
He had his first success in 1970 in Kinshasa, where he was singer, composer and co-founder of the Zaïko Langa Langa group. The group quickly became the figurehead of a generation of young Zairians who found the traditional rumba on which Africa has been dancing since the 1950s a little too slow and outmoded. But with the arrival of rock, the rhythms have accelerated. Zaïko Langa Langa then seeks to revitalize and renew the nonchalant rumba in vogue. Success is immediate. Soon, Papa Wemba becomes a star and dominates his group.
In 1974 he created his own group Isife Lokole, and in 1976 he created Viva La Musica, composed of about fifteen musicians.
Around 1979, he sang a few months in Afrisa International orchestra of Tabu Ley, another Zairean star with whom Papa Wemba had already worked in the late 60s.
In the hope of gaining a larger audience and to benefit from more material he went to Paris in the early 80s and since then he has been divided between France and the DRC.
Papa Wemba is also a fan of SAPE, the Society of Ambiancers and Elegant People. Born in the Congo at the end of the 1970s, this movement is gaining momentum abroad and especially in France. The SAPE is a phenomenon first clothing based on a flamboyant and exaggerated elegance.


  • 2001 Bakala dia Kuba
  • 1999 M’zee Fula-Ngenge, Sono CDS 8836
  • 1998 Viva La Musica / vol.1, CD 700892
  • 1998 Viva La Musica / vol.2, CD 700882
  • 1998 Viva La Musica, vol. 1 (1977-1978), Ngoyarto NG026
  • 1997 Viva La Musica / New Writing, Sonodisc CDS 8828
  • 1996 Ndako ya ndele, Sonodisc CD CDS7007
  • 1996 Wake up, Sonodisc CD CDS8817
  • 1995 Emotion, Realworld CD RW52
  • 1995 Pole Position, Sonodisc CD CDS 8815
  • 1994 Foridoles, Sonodisc CD CD 72424
  • 1992 The Traveler, Realworld CD RW20
  • 1988 M’fono yami, Celluloid CD 668752
  • Molokai, Realworld
  • New generation
  • Mokili ngele, LP [DSK1M]
  • Love kilawu, Sonodisc CD CD8438
  • Mokili Mercy, Sonodisc
Official website http://www.papawemba.net/


Visual artist

Author: Hazoumè (Romuald)
Origin: Benin ,  
Date: 1962 –

Biography: Born in 1962 in Porto-Novo in the Republic of Benin, Romuald Hazoumé is Yoruba of origin. At a very young age, he focused on enhancing the elements of his environment. After being a brilliant student, he practiced high level sport before embracing his career as a painter – sculptor. He was the first artist to transform the waste of his environment into works of art, expressing his personality and talent through several sculptures and masks made since the 1980s with recycled materials. Emeritus artist, he gives life, through his works, to his imagination to reiterate all stages of creation and give a modern interpretation of the facts of society.

He has 5 solo exhibitions in 10 countries in Africa, Europe and the United States, and has participated in 19 group shows in 15 countries around the world. His last exhibition was inaugurated on May 09, 2003 at the AC Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Despite his great openness to the West and his many opportunities to settle outside the African continent, he remains a Beninese attached to his soil, keeps in touch with the cult of ancestors and is incarnated in the voodoo.

Thus, since 1993, he has embarked on the plastic interpretation of the Fa, the oracle which presides over divination and which is compared to a cosmogony, a Bible or a quran ever written. This studious work – so much it requires a long and rigorous initiation – is transmitted from father to son and represents for Romuald Hazoumé, an obvious because having answer to everything.
Through an important series of works undertaken in this direction, and where natural pigments and organic materials are related to the origin of the Fa, the artist wants to unveil the invisible and bring together characteristics common to different cultures.

A striking personality of art in Black Africa, attentive to criticism and suggestions, he steals from success to success by offering his audience a very rich exhibition, both visually, aesthetically, historically and politically.

Description: Historical representation depicting four characters on horseback. The characters in the upper register are probably, from left to right, Queen Taitu and Emperor Menelik. This unsigned work is attributed to Tadla di Addi Abarda.
The production of paintings with historical subject, called antika , developed from the 19th century, encouraged by the European demand.

Painting: Painter

Author: Chéri Samba
Origin: DRC ,  
Date: 1956 –

Biography: Samba wa Mbimba Nzinga, aka Chéri Samba, was born on November 30, 1956 in Kinito-Mvuila in Bas-Zaire. His father, a blacksmith, wants his son to succeed him in the trade. But Cheri is doing literary studies but lack of support, he can not pursue them and moved to Kinshasa.

Cheri introduces himself as an apprentice to the painter and draftsman Apuza whom he admires and is admitted to his studio. But the status of apprentice frustrates him. He would have liked to be hired as a collaborator since, since his youth, he has been drawing and at school he was considered a virtuoso in this field. Samba leaves his first boss three days after the engagement and will discover two other associate painters: Lomabaku and Mbuta Masunda with whom he spends only three months because his first boss recovers this time as a collaborator.

Desiring to realize his old dream of being independent, Chéri Samba opened his own workshop in 1975. He made some trips to the Congo in 1976 and 1977 to decorate a hotel in Brazzaville. In 1978, he went to Gabon where he was invited to paint cemeteries in a village. It has multiple participations in individual and collective exhibitions (1978, National Fair of Kinshasa, 1979, International Fair of Kinshasa, “Horizon 79” in Berlin in Germany, in 1980 and 81, French Cultural Center, 1982 Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris, Goethe Institute in Berlin …).

Observer of the society of which he likes to submit the sequences to the criticism, Chéri Samba paints topics or themes drawn in the daily life.

The originality of Samba’s painting is characterized by a palette diluted in a background of more or less uniform color that is illustrated by stylized characters in eloquent and expressive attitudes, whose message is reinforced by texts, as in comics . The painter Chéri Samba is a narcissistic being who, in his art, likes to put himself at the center of situations, whether lived or simply imagined.

The art of Samba served as inspiration for the filmmakers. Director Ngangura showed an interesting film based on the artist’s works and their themes, entitled Kin Kiesse, a true mirror of the joyful life of the capital of Zaire. This film received an award at the Ouagadougou African Film Festival (Fespaco).

Materials: oil on canvas

Biography: Ludovic K. Fadairo was born on August 21, 1947 in Zinvié (Benin). From an early age, Fadaïro was destined for music. Today, he is one of the major painters of the African continent.

Between 1975 and 2000, Ludovic Fadaïro participated in more than 25 international group exhibitions in Canada, Nigeria, Morocco, Senegal, Togo, Ivory Coast, France, Poland, Belgium and the USA. During the same period, he realized 23 individual exhibitions, notably in Cotonou, Montreal, Abidjan, New York, London, Paris, Barcelona, ​​Bamako, Warsaw, Atlanta.


J Amais topic has spilled much ink as traditional African sculpture 1 . It has been one of the masterpieces to measure the “civilization” of the black man and his ability to create, capacity variously appreciated throughout history until at the beginning of this century, cubism helping, unanimity begins to be made on the exceptional character of African sculptures that have always been confused with African art of which they are only a part, the most important probably, if one had to judge only by the number of created pieces that have reached us.

The places of traditional African sculpture

What does “traditional Africa” ​​mean? If we consider only sculpture, it must be admitted that such an Africa is inhabited by blacks whose basic religious traditions are “animist”. Such an Africa excludes North Africa or “Maghreb”. But again, caution is needed: the arts challenge the borders. How does one understand the integration of Sudan into the Maghreb when one knows that this country includes two inhabited regions one by white-skinned men, Muslims, and the other by black-skinned men whose religious traditions could to be close to those of most blacks? Is Islam sufficient here as a criterion for classification? He does notand colonization, which in principle lasted less than half a century, are relevant criteria of division: populations sharing the same cultures overlap with them. Faced with these questions, we decided to write for the man of today: he refers much more to the states than to large areas whose boundaries for him would be unclear. As with any African artistic creation, we preferred to classify African sculpture into four main groupings ” sculpture in West Africa , Central Africa , Southern Africa and East AfricaThey have the advantage of smoothing the weight of geographical factors over art, and they question the geographical determinism underlying the classification of forests, savannas and the Sahel in Africa, after all. Mali or Burkina Faso in the savannah or Sahel zones have not prevented them from producing masks as complex as those of the forest areas, or in principle the raw material, wood, is more abundant. in these cases, it owes much more to the will and freedom of man than to an external conditioning, however restrictive it may be.
It has also been observed that sculpture is practiced on a large scale only in sedentary societies, living on the fruits of the earth. Africa does not escape this rule: the nomads, mainly Muslims, forced to permanently transport all of their furniture and their gods do not carve … There is a tendency to believe that sculpture requires a certain stability of the conditions of life in society and the existence of cults compatible with the representation of the gods.

Read the entire article .

1. By “traditional African sculpture” is meant that which comes from a context where ancestral traditions mark the object socialized by rites, authenticated by a use, consecrated by an association with the sacred, or with initiation.

There are 48 answer (s):

Mask , DRC
Head , Nigeria
Mask , Ghana / Ivory Coast
Head , South Africa Ngongo ya Chintu , Headquarters, DRC Headquarters , TanzaniaStatue , Nigeria Leopard , Nigeria Salt Shaker , Sierra Leone Mask , Nigeria Statue , MaliMask , Gabon Pipe , South Africa Spoon , South Africa Nkisi nkondi , Congo / CabindaStatue , Cameroon Statue , Mali Statue , Cabinda

Architecture: House

Origin: Cameroon ,   Mousgoum

Description:  For three centuries, the Mousgoum have built their homes in the plains on the Cameroon / Chad border. The Mousgoum and their famous houses, called tolek in their language (Munjuk), have been known to the Western world since the 1850s at least, when the German explorer Heinrich Barth traveled to North and Central Africa.

For Mousgoum, as for many cultures around the world, art and architecture have become important supports for maintaining, in tangible and visible forms, a knowledge of the past . Tolek mousgoum, a dome made of clay, was endangered by the 1930s, by the combination of forced labor introduced by the French colonial power, the emigration of Mousgoum, changes in the social structure mousgoum, diseases and death. In 1994, there was little tolekakay still standing.

However since 1995, there has been a resurgence in the construction of its houses. Nearly twenty are now in Pouss and its surroundings. Parallel to this, the end of 1995 saw an explosion of the mural, which often represented the tolek. At the end of the nineteenth century, the tolek became a synchretic form, native in its genesis and charged with the understanding and interpretation of the Mousgoum on external ideas.

Origin: South Africa , Lieliefontein, Namaqualand 

Description:  The portable hut (“/ haru-oms”) of the Nama, one of the many groups of Khoikhoi pastoralists, is unique in South Africa. Due to its structure, the hut of mats is a semi-permanent shelter: a tent that is almost a house. It can be assembled and disassembled quickly and is perfectly adapted to a nomadic way of life. Its various elements, a light wooden frame and a braided blanket can be easily loaded on the backs of oxen and transported through the semi-desert plains and mountains of Namaqualand. This increased the mobility of Nama pastoralists and allowed them to travel a great distance during transhumance.

The aerodynamic shape of the dome allowed to hold a maximum volume in a minimum of space. The armature in branches held together by ropes made of vegetable fibers does not need any other support. The circular plan and domed roof gave a feeling of space inside although the actual space was restricted. The mats attached to the wooden frame according to a defined scheme, allowed to regulate the internal temperature. In dry weather, the air passed through the mats and refreshed the interior of the house, but in the wet season, the fibers of the mats expanded under the effect of moisture, and made the cover impermeable. Two matte doors at the front and back of the house could be rolled in order to increase ventilation and increase the diffuse light that filtered through the interstices of the mats. The realization of the mats for the construction of a new house was long and thorough, and was the task of the women. But once built, the house needed little maintenance, and the various elements could be repaired or replaced easily.

The house in mats is very rare nowadays. We can see variants built with plastic or sheets.

Translated and adapted from GP Klinghardt, South African Museum, Sagittarius , Volume 2, Number 1 March 1987

Architecture: Tombs

Origin: Uganda ,   Kasubi

Description:  The kasubi tombs 5 kilometers from Kampala are the place where four former kings of Buganda are buried: Mutesa I (1856-1884), Mwanga II (1884-1897), exiled to the Seychelles in 1899 where he died in 1903 , Chwa II (1897-1939), Mutesa II (1939-1966), exiled to England where he died in 1969 and buried in Kasubi in 1971. This historic site was also the former site of the royal palace of Buganda Kingdom.

The site contains several domed buildings covered with a thatched roof. Three of them are particularly tall. The largest of all, measuring 14 meters in diameter, Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga , is the burial chamber of kings. Then there is a two-door building, Bujyabukula , through which visitors pass when they go to the graves. The third Ndoga-Obukabais building is the drum house. Inside these buildings, and especially in the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga , magnificent palm-leaf rings rise from floor to roof, adorning and punctuating the space. The support posts that are covered with beaten bark surprise by their straightness.

The buildings contain a variety of objects that belonged to kings.

The site was listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2001.

Architecture: Stele

Origin: Ethiopia , Axum 
Date: 3rd – 4th century

Description:  The most famous remains of Axum, the legendary city of the Queen of Sheba, are the stelae or obelisks that stand together in a field. The largest, weighing 500 tons, would have reached 33 meters in height if it had not fallen. She lies on the ground in several pieces. There is a hole in the ground next to it on the site of another stele, which was removed and transported to Rome during the Italian occupation. The hole is covered and ready to receive the return of the monolith.

A number of steles still stand on the site. The largest, shown opposite, culminates at 23 meters in height and rests on a limestone altar. They are all cut in a single block of granite and all have an altar, which would have been used for sacrifices. These stelae are the largest monolithic monuments known in the Old World. Their use and age remain a mystery. Some scholars, based on representations of ancient coins discovered at the foot of monuments, think they could have been carved and erected to the 3rd or 4th century AD. The nearby graves could mean that these obelisks were used as memorials to deceased kings and queens. But this is only a hypothesis.

Architecture: Bandiagara Cliff, Ireli Village

Origin: Mali ,   Dogon

Description:  Between the 13th and 14th centuries, the Dogons settled in a mountainous area southwest of the Niger Loop, divided into three zones: the cliff, the plateau and a strip of semi-desert plain. Essentially farmers, they managed to develop the smallest piece of land among the scree. They have developed a remarkable civilization based on a highly codified symbolism and on a cosmogony experienced daily, at the center of which there is always the human being.

Anxious to protect themselves from the incursions of the warriors, some built their homes under the shelters of the pink sandstone cliff of Bandiagara. Adapted to the topography of the land, the family concessions whose thick walls give them the appearance of fortresses, are organized around a courtyard. Mill and granary granaries, in the form of fortified towers, are often located at the corners of the main yard enclosure.

Inside the houses a ventilation system makes it possible to regulate the temperature.

Materials: raw earth

Architecture: Great Zimbabwe

Description:  Great Zimbabwe has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1986. The city stretches over 80 hectares in a valley and surrounding hills. The site is the largest group of ancient buildings in sub-Saharan Africa. It is composed of two sites dominated by the ruins of the hill where stands the acropolis , a true fortress with walls imbued with granite rocks. The ruins of the valley, home to the Grande Enceinte , represent a remarkable monumental ensemble, surrounded by a rampart 250 meters in circumference, consisting of 15,000 tons of carefully squared stone blocks.

The technique used is dry stone masonry , without the use of mortar. The walls can reach 8 meters high and 4 meters thick at the base. Many of them are decorated with elaborate patterns.

The history of Great Zimbabwe can be divided into three periods: the occupation of the site began in the eleventh century, with the construction of huts made of earth and wood on the hill. In the 13th century, huts were replaced by larger earthen houses and the first stone walls appeared. The fourteenth century marked the peak of society thanks to trade with the east coast of Africa. But in the mid-fifteenth century the decline of Great Zimbabwe began, which slowly died out, probably due to the exhaustion of its local resources.

Architecture: Churches of Lalibela

Description:  In the IV th century, the royal power of Aksum adopted Christianity as its official religion. It is mainly between the XII th and XV th century, the territorial expansion of the Christian state, that Christianity spread in central Ethiopia. From this time dates an exceptional heritage of churches dug in the rock, related to the activity of the monks. When the Axumite empire collapsed in the XI th century, a new dynasty, the Zagwe dynasty took power and turned the Ethiopian capital of Axum in Roha. The best known of the eleven kings of the Zagwé dynasty was Lalibela (1185-1225).

It built 11 churches over a period of 25 years between the end of the XII th and the beginning of XIII th century. Digging in the rock, surrounded by deep trenches, most communicate through narrow tunnels and small bridges. All such Biet Giorgis Church (Church of St. George, built in the XII th century) are monoliths were carved directly into the rock, from a huge block of stone. St. George’s Church was the last one built under Lalibela. The elegance of its cruciform plan and its singular position, at the bottom of the cavity dug by its builders, make it one of the strangest monuments of Christendom.

The site has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1978.